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Research products are EOSC Resources resulting from a scientific process, any physical or digital asset produced and shared by users/services for users/services, such as research literature, research data(sets), research software, and others. Research Products are characterized/described by metadata to be used for citation, attribution, re-use, reproducibility, semantic linking, and findability, made available via EOSC Data Sources, which also host the digital assets when the product is digital.

The OpenAIRE guidelines provide a community-endorsed classification of research products, based on standard metadata formats (DataCite, Dublin Core, JATS) and vocabularies (CASRAI, COAR) in scholarly communication. According to the guidelines, research products are organized into four classes:

  • publications ("literature", intended for humans to read),
  • research data (information to be used by programs; human readability is a feature),
  • research software (code for compilation or interpretation), and
  • other research products (products that are not classified as literature, datasets, and software).

The model may in the future be extended to include more first-class citizen entities. For example, by identifying into “Other Research Products” other classes of products that are "mature" enough to flank publications, data, and software.

For an entity to surface as a first-class entity, the entity must be (i) well recognized across different disciplines of science and (ii) bring a critical mass of products and data sources making such products available.

The following figure shows the overall EOSC information model, inclusive of Services, Data Sources, Providers, Research Products, and EOSC Interoperability Frameworks.

Figure: EOSC Information Model with Services, Data Sources, Providers, Research Products

The EOSC Research Product Profiles include today the following profiles, which EOSC Data Sources must comply with in order to onboard the Research Products they contain into the EOSC Resource Catalogue.

As a System of Systems, the EOSC will further extend the set of Research Product profiles to include other standards regarded well-established, complete, and endorsed by the research communities.

  • OpenAIRE Guidelines for Content Providers: EOSC profiles for Research Publication/Literature, Research Dataset, Research Software, Other Research Products and Vocabularies for Research Publication, Research Dataset, Research Software, Other Research Product.
  • org (ongoing, to be promoted in BETA by the end of 2021): Life Science entities: https://bioschemas.org.

The onboarding process (validation and aggregation of metadata), takes place via the EOSC Research Product Onboarding Services, powered by OpenAIRE PROVIDE. More on the onboarding process at https://www.openaire.eu/content-aquisition-policy.

 

Code

Attribute Name

Examples

Data Source Policies

DS1.1

Submission policy URL

DANS EASY deposit agreement, see https://dans.knaw.nl/en/about/organisation-and-policy/legal-information/deposit-agreement.pdf

DS1.2

Preservation policy URL

SURF Data Repository Preservation Policy, see https://repository.surfsara.nl/docs/preservation-policy

DS1.3

Version control

FALSE | TRUE

DS1.4

Persistent Identity Systems

 

DS1.4.1

Persistent Identity EntityType

Examples: Research data, Research software, Research Publications, Other research products, Funders, Projects, Researchers, Organisations, Data Sources, Services, Research Infrastructures, Disciplines

DS1.4.2

Persistent Identity EntityType Scheme

Examples: DOI, Handle, RoR, ORCID, ISNI, ArXiv, PMCID,.....

Data Source content

DS2.1

Jurisdiction

Examples: HAL is "National", Zenodo.org is "Global", university repositories serving university scientists are "Institutional"

DS2.2

Data Source Classification

Examples: Repository, Catalogue of Research Products, Scientific Databases, Metadata Aggregators, Journal, Publisher, CRIS, Research Graph, Research Entity Registry

DS2.3

Research Entity Types

Examples: Research data, Research software, Research Publications, Other research products, Funders, Projects, Researchers, Organisations, Data Sources, Services,Research Infrastructures, Disciplines

DS2.4

Thematic

Multidisciplinary (FALSE) | Disciplinary (TRUE)

GESIS, ArXiv are "disciplinary", Figshare is "multidisciplinary"

Research Product policies

DS3.1

Research Product Licensing

 

DS3.1.1

Research Product License Name

Example: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International; Apache, GPL,...

DS3.1.2

Research Product License URL

Example for research data: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Example for software products: https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

DS3.2

Research Product Access Policy

Examples: Open, Embargoed, Restricted, Closed

Research Product Metadata

DS4.1

Research Product Metadata Licensing

 

DS4.1.1

Research Product Metadata License Name

Example: CC0, CC-BY, etc.

DS4.1.2

Research Product Metadata License URL

Example: https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.it

DS4.2

Research Product Metadata Access Policy

Examples: Open, Embargoed, Restricted